Отвержение Фихте идеализма и материализма (как позднее у Дильтей)
Fichte criticizes realism and idealism as two unilateral philosophical positions, which share the same prejudice in that they each in their own way claim to have access to the truth of things. As two diametrically opposed philosophical systems, both of them are refuted in the Wissenschaftslehre
1. Философия Я
Das Ich setzt sich schlechthin.
Das Ich setzt sich selbst, und es ist, vermöge dieses bloßen Setzens durch sich selbst; und umgekehrt: Das Ich ist, und es setzt sein Seyn, vermöge seines bloßen Seyns
2. Активность / делание
reality consists in pure activity, an activity of the I.
Корбен Молла Садра Christian Jambet Act de l’etre
Fichte’s idealism begins with a self-positing I, hence with an act (Tathandlung) of consciousness rather than with a fact (Tatsache) of consciousness:
If philosophy begins with a fact (Tatsache), then it places itself in the midst of a world of being and finitude, and it will be difficult for it to discover any path leading from this world to an infinite and supersensible one. If, however, philosophy begins with an Act (Tathandlung), then it finds itself at the precise point where these two worlds are connected with each other and from which they can both be surveyed in a single glance.
Intellectual intuition defines the transcendental I as activity. The Tathandlung is a fact-fact, a fact of consciousness in which
the I is intuited in doing.
“I” is not a product but a process
3. НЕ Я
The I posits itself and upon doing so posits the Non-I as well. This Non-I
serves to limit the I and this limitation gives the I its reality. For, according
to Fichte, a pure I, one which would exist unconditionally (that is,
without limits), would be indefinite and unreal. This concept of Begrenzung
and the pivotal role that the I plays in limiting the world so that it can be known.
Я ограничивает себя в Не-Я, что и делает сознание интенциональным.
Tathandlung and intellectual intuition are explored and deepened through Fichte’s account of “life”.
The centrality of “life” for this project becomes clear with his assertion that “life is the true absolute”.
5. Я как абсолютный закон воображения/созидания
The I intuits itself as substance to accident as an absolute law of imaging (absoluten Gesetz des Bilden)”
inwendiges Leben the intuition of life is the highest ground
In a letter to Goethe, Schiller writes:
“According to Fichte’s verbal statements, the self creates through its representations; and all reality is only in the self. The world is to the self like a ball, which the self has thrown out and then caught again through reflection.”
intellectual intuition as activity,
as the ground of the transcendental I,
7. Вот РС!
Fichte’s emphasis on the appearing of appearance (Schein der Erscheinung) and in particular, a unity with the absolute in radical immanence,
Два типа ума
Fichte seems to distinguish between two forms of reason.
1. On the one hand, there is the inadequate rationality of a discriminating consciousness that simply generates appearances in its attempt to grasp the world.
2. On the other hand, beyond the subjectively grounded transcendental consciousness, there is a reason he associates with Being itself.
It is a rationality beyond any transcendental I. Yet to the extent he explicitly associates this reason with light (das Licht) and the power of manifestation, his exploration of it continues as a transcendental phenomenology beyond the
Being and light are one Fichte
Внутренняя и внешняя жизнь
The two highest disjunctive terms stand here absolutely opposed to one another, life’s inner and outer life, the form of immanent and eminent existence as well, separated by an impassable gulf. […] If one wishes to think them as united, then they are united exactly by this gulf and by this contradiction.
Emamanz und Immanenz
If there really is to be a ‘through,’ (Durch) then – as a condition of its possibility – we must presuppose an inner life (innere Leben), independent in itself from the ‘through,’ (Durch) and resting on itself. […] since everything depends on this […] that the inward life (innere Leben)of this concept was the principle of the energetic insight into a life beyond, which grasped us, and which was intuited in this insight (Einsicht) as self-sufficient. Thus it was the principle of intuition and of life in the intuition.
it is only by the eradication of consciousness that truth might be possible at all