Доксы и парадоксы времени. Лекция 9. Время индуизма. Танец Шивы. Атман и прана. Кали против Калы | Paideuma.tv

Доксы и парадоксы времени. Лекция 9. Время индуизма. Танец Шивы. Атман и прана. Кали против Калы

Duration: 01:54:43
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2021
Время как дыхание

Введение этимология

psykhē "the soul, mind, spirit; life, one's life, the invisible animating principle or entity which occupies and directs the physical body; understanding, the mind (as the seat of thought), faculty of reason," also "ghost, spirit of a dead person;" probably akin to psykhein "to blow, breathe," also "to cool, to make dry."

sometimes traced to a PIE root *bhes- "to blow, to breathe" (source also of Sanskrit bhas-),

*h₁eh₁t- *h₂enh₁-

to breathe

breath

*h₂enh₁-

Sanskrit: व्यान (vyāna)

Gilaki: جان‎ (soul; body; dear)

Sanskrit: अनिल (ánila, “air, wind”) (see there for further descendants)

*an(ə)-3

Gr. ἄνεμος `Hauch, Wind', ἀνήνεμος

Lat. animus `Geist, Seele', anima `Lufthauch, Atem, Seele, Leben'

aksl. vonja (*ani̯ā) `Geruch' (vonjati `riechen, duften'), *ǫchati `duften' in aruss. uchati usw. (-ch- vielleicht Nachahmung von duchati, also ohne geschichtlichen Zusammenhang mit dem s von lat. hālāre aus *an-slo-);

и.е. *dheu-

θῡμός `Gemütswallung, Leidenschaft, Mut' (θῡμιάω noch rein sinnlich `rauche, räuchere'

 aksl. dymъ `Rauch';

gr. θύ̄ω (ἔθῡσα), lesb. θυίω `stürme einher, brause, tobe, rauche' (*dhu-i̯ō, υ: aus θύ̄σω, ἔδῡσα, wie auch ū im ai. Pass. dhūyáte und anord. dȳja `schütteln' Neubildung ist; in der Bed. `rase' vielleicht aus *dhusi̯ō, s. dheu̯es-), θυάω, θυάζω ds., θύελλα `Sturm' (s. S. 269 unterdheu̯es-), ep. θύ̄νω `fahre einher, stürme daher' (*θυνϝω), θυνέω ds. (*θυνέϝω), θῦνος · πόλεμος, ὁρμή, δρόμος Hes. Mit der Bed. `rauchen (Rauchopfer), riechen': θύ̄ω (θύ̄σω), τέθῠκα `opfere', θυσία `Opfer', θῦμα `Opfertier', θύος n. `Räucherwerk (daher lat. tūs), Opfergabe, Opfer' (davon θυεία `Mörser'? s. Boisacq m. Lit.), θυόεις, θυήεις `von Opferdampf oder Räucherwerk duftend', θύον `ein Baum, dessen Holz wegen seines Wohlgeruches verbrannt wurde', θυία, θύα `Thuya', θυηλή `Opfergabe' ( : ion. θυαλήματα : att. θῡλήματα, *θῠϝα- : *θυ:-, s. Bechtel Lex. 168 f., Boisacq s. v.), θῠμέλη `Opferstätte, Altar'.

slav. *dujǫ, *duti (z. B. russ. dúju, dutь) `blasen, wehen', ablautend *dyjǫ in sloven. díjem, díti `wehen, duften, leise atmen'; aksl. dunǫ dunǫti (*dhoun-) `blasen' (ablautend mit ai. dhū̆-nóti, -nāti, gr. θύ̄νω);

gr. θάνατος `Tod', θνητός `sterblich' (*dhu̯enətos und *dhu̯n̥̄tós), dor. θνά̄σκω `sterbe', nach den Präs. auf -ίσκω umgebildet att. ἀποθνῄσκω (-θανοῦμαι, -θανεῖν), lesb. θναίσκω ds. (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 362, 709, 770);

to breathe

Индуизм. Веды

Упанишады

आत्मा, आत्मन् от и.е. *h₁éh₁t-mō ~ *h₁h₁t-m̥nés 

It is derived from the Proto-Indo-European word *h₁eh₁tmṓ (a root meaning "breath" with Germanic cognates: Dutch adem, Old High German atum "breath," Modern German atmen "to breathe" and Atem "respiration, breath", Old English eþian).

 It can also be linked to the Greek word "atmos", which is the derivation of the word atmosphere.

From Proto-Indo-European *h₁éh₁t-mō ~ *h₁h₁t-m̥nés (“beath, spirit”), from *h₁eh₁t- (“to breathe”) +‎ *-mō. Cognate with Proto-Germanic *ēþmô (“breath”), Proto-Tocharian *āñcäme (“wish, self, soul”).

Кашмирский шиваизм

Abhinavagupta (c. 950 – 1016 CE[1][2]) was a philosopher, mystic and aesthetician from Kashmir.[3] He was also considered an influential musician, poet, dramatist, exegete, theologian, and logician[4][5] – a polymathic personality who exercised strong influences on Indian culture.[6][7]

Abhinavagupta was born in a Kashmiri Brahmin

Автор Tantrāloka, an encyclopedic treatise on all the philosophical and practical aspects of Kaula and Trika (known today as Kashmir Shaivism).

Школы Trika, Pratyabhijna, Spanda, Krama, Kula.

Два типа времени

Солнечное (saura  = sthūla – sthūla sharira) и духовное (adhyātmika = sūkshma – sūkshma sharira – связано с prana.

Все распространение времени (kāla) основано на жизненной энергии и дыхания (prāna). Жизненная энергия дыхания зависит от вибрации (spanda). Вибрация покоится в пустоте, а пустота в сознании (cit). Поэтому вся вселенная основана на сознании.

Тантралока, 62-63.

Prana प्राण

prāṇa is sometimes described as originating from the Sun and connecting the elements,

From   the latter from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enh₁- (“to breathe”).

Сознание развертывается в витальную энергию или дыхание: prāksamvit prane parinatā

Каллата.

Bhatta Kallata also referred as Kallata was a notable 9th-century Shaivite thinker who may have written the Spanda-vritti, and Spanda-karika.

He was a pupil of Vasugupta, another possible author of the Spanda-karika. According to Rajatarangini (The River of Kings) written in 12th-century CE by Kalhana, he lived during the reign of Avanti Varman (855-883 CE).

Spanda= sphurattā (вспышка), ūrmi (волна), balam (сила), udyoga (подъем), hrdayam (сердце), sāram (сущность).

Пишет Kshemaraja в Spandasandohna

Rajanaka Kṣemarāja (क्षेमराज) (late 10th to early 11th century) was a philosopher and brilliant disciple of Abhinavagupta, who was a peerless master of tantra, yoga, poetics, and dramaturgy. Not much is known of Kṣemarāja's life or parentage. His chief disciple was a sage known as Yogāraja.

Mark S. G. Dyczkowski (1992). The Stanzas on Vibration: The SpandaKarika with Four Commentaries: The SpandaSamdoha by Ksemaraja, The SpandaVrtti by Kallatabhatta, The SpandaVivrti by Rajanaka Rama, The SpandaPradipika by Bhagavadutpala. SUNY Press.

Trika Sāshana время = последовательность и непоследовательность (kramākrama).

«Время созидающий импульс, характеризующийся последовательностью и непоследовательностью. Время сияет как собственная природа великого Господа. Его появление происходит из-за энергии Господа называемой Kāli.»

Tantrasāra Abhinavagupta.

Krama – последовательность, название одной из тантрических школ.

Время есть манифестации множественности действий kriyāvaicitriya

Время вибрация сознания, проявленная в дыхании.

«Путь времени» - kālādhvan. Adkhvan = путь

Для пробужденного вся объективная реальность должна быть проглочена.

Тантралока

Два времени

Высшее есть энергия Господа Kālashakti = Kālī काली

Низшее есть один из пяти ограничивающих факторов kāla

Время как шакти есть воля и действие (iccha и kriya)

Танец Шивы – тандава, рудра-тандава

Танец мгновений Ямвлиха

Кали тандава

Shiva = Nataraja «царь танцев»

The Tandavam takes its name from Tandu (taṇḍu), the attendant of Shiva, who instructed Bharata (author of the Natya Shastra) in the use of Angaharas and Karanas modes of the Tandava at Shiva's order.

Some scholars consider that Tandu himself must have been the author of an earlier work on the dramatic arts, which was incorporated into the Natya Shastra.

Indeed, the classical arts of dance, music and song may derive from the mudras and rituals of Shaiva tradition.

The dance performed by Shiva's wife Parvati in response to Shiva's Tandava is known as Lasya, in which the movements are gentle, graceful and sometimes erotic. Some scholars consider Lasya to be the feminine version of Tandava. Lasya has 2 kinds, Jarita Lasya and Yauvaka Lasya.