Доксы и парадоксы времени. Лекция 13. Время Стои. Промысел и рок. Когда прийдет Огонь
Пневма = огонь + воздух
Пневма материальна она есть тепло
Всем управляет молния
Сила натяжения тонос τόνος
Тонос = сила удара огня
Движение напряжение от центра к периферии и обратно!
22 B 63 . HIPPOL. Refut. IX 10 λέγει δὲ καὶ σαρκὸς ἀνάστασιν ταύτης 〈τῆς〉φανερᾶς, ἐν ἧι γεγενήμεθα, καὶ τὸν θεὸν οἶδε ταύτης τῆς ἀναστάσεως αἴτιον οὕτως λέγων˙ ἔνθα δ’ ἐόντι ἐπανίστασθαι καὶ φύλακας γίνεσθαι ἐγερτὶ ζώντων καὶ νεκρῶν. λέγει [I 164. 15] δὲ καὶ τοῦ κόσμου κρίσιν καὶ πάντων τῶν ἐν αὐτῶι διὰ πυρὸς [fr. B 64 = 28] [I 165. 1 App.] γίνεσθαι λέγων οὕτως˙ τὰ δὲ πάντα οἰακίζει Κεραυνός , τουτέστι κατευθύνει, κεραυνὸν τὸ πῦρ λέγων τὸ αἰώνιον. λέγει δὲ καὶ φρόνιμον τοῦτο εἶναι τὸ πῦρ καὶ τῆς διοικήσεως τῶν [I 165. 5 App.] [fr. B 65 = 24] ὅλων αἴτιον˙ καλεῖ δὲ αὐτὸ χρησμοσύνην καὶ κόρον ˙ χρησμοσύνη δέ ἐστιν ἡ διακόσμησις κατ’ αὐτόν, ἡ δὲ ἐκπύρωσις [fr. B 66 = 26] κόρος. πάντα γάρ, φησί, τὸ πῦρ ἐπελθὸν κρινεῖ καὶ καταλήψεται  .
(Dice anche della resurrezione questa carne sensibile, in cui siamo nati, e sa che di questa resurrezione dio è la causa, così dicendo:) si levano dinanzi a lui che è lì, e desti diventano custodi dei vivi e dei morti. Dice anche che vi è un giudizio dell’universo e di tutto quanto vi è in esso ad opera del fuoco, dicendo così:) il fulmine governa ogni cosa, (cioè dirige, chiamando fulmine il fuoco eterno. Dice anche che questo fuoco è saggio in virtù del governo di tutte le cose; e lo chiama:) indigenza e sazietà; indigenza è secondo lui l’ordinamento del mondo, sazietà l’incendio universale. Il fuoco infatti (dice) giungendo giudicherà e condannerà tutte le cose.
From Proto-Hellenic *tónos, from Proto-Indo-European *tón-os, from *ten- (“stretch”).
Диакосмесис – экпюросис
Из огня в воздух воду и землю и обратно
Сперва из первоначальной субстанции появляется нынешний миропорядок, который затем, по истечении положенного судьбой времени, по прошествии великого «мирового года», вновь исчезает в этой первоначальной субстанции
Первичное основание = материя, благодаря логосу уже получившая свое первое, изначальное определение: всецело огненная субстанция
Из нее начинается Гераклитов путь «вверх и вниз», преобразование огня в другие стихии и их обратное превращение в первоначальное состояние. Огонь посредством уплотнения переходит в воздух и затем в воду. Здесь, конечно, прямолинейность хода прерывается; ибо из мертвой, неподвижной земли не могло бы произойти обратное развитие. Тем большую достоверность приобретал опыт, говорящий, что для роста, кроме тепла, необходима еще и влажность. Как у отдельных живых существ влажная сперма является началом будущего развития, точно так же и в макрокосме — это ощущал еще Фалес — влажная стихия должна была иметь решающее значение для развития жизни. Именно поэтому Зенон в своей книге о мировом целом определил воду как «путевую» веху. Более твердые составные части воды в виде осадка образуют землю; более тонкие, испаряясь, превращаются в воздух и далее в огонь. Из взаимного перехода и из смешения четырех стихий возникает множественность отдельных вещей.
Семенные логосы аналог эйдосам
Согласно вечному закону, происходит раскрытие единства во множественность и образование формы мира в большом и малом. Однако тот же вечный закон гласит, что все возникшее неминуемо должно исчезнуть. Наш мир также не вечен. Как при возникновении элементов, так и в дальнейшем протекании диакосмесиса наступает поворотный момент. Ибо несмотря на то, что закон разума надолго приводит мировые стихии к равновесию, все же постепенно и неизбежно наиболее активная стихия, огонь, достигает преобладания.
В конце нашего мирового периода ждет возврат в первоначальное огненное состояние, экпиросис, который вновь восстанавливает множество в единство, одновременно принося катарсис, освобождение мира от всех нечистот и несовершенств.
Дион Прузский в своем Борисфенике. Правда, он сам ссылается при этом на гимны персидских магов
Moreover, there is besides a myth which arouses admiration as sung in secret rites by the Magi, who extol this god of ours as being the perfect and original driver of the most perfect chariot. For the chariot of Helius, they claim, is relatively recent when compared with that of Zeus, though visible to the many because its course is run in full view. Therefore, they say, the chariot of Helius has enjoyed a reputation with all mankind, since the poets, beginning practically with the earliest times, so it would seem, are always telling of its rising and its setting, all in the same manner describing the yoking of the horses and Helius himself mounting his car.
40 "But the mighty, perfect chariot of Zeus has never been praised as it deserves by any of the poets of our land, either by Homer or by Hesiod; and yet Zoroaster sings of it, as do the children of the Magi, who learned the song from him. For the Persians say that Zoroaster, because of a passion for wisdom and justice, deserted his fellows and dwelt by himself on a certain mountain;
Зороастр и огонь
and they say that thereupon the mountain caught fire, a mighty flame descending from the sky above, and that it burned unceasingly. So then the king and the most distinguished of his Persians drew near for the purpose of praying to the god; and Zoroaster came forth from the fire unscathed, and, showing himself gracious toward them, bade them to be of good cheer and to offer certain sacrifices in recognition of the god's having come to that place.
And thereafter, so they say, Zoroaster has associated, not with them all, but only with such as are best endowed with regard to the truth, and are best able to understand the god, men whom the Persians have named Magi, that is to say, people who know how to cultivate the divine power, not like the Greeks, who in their ignorance use the term to denote wizards. And all else that those Magi do is in accordance with sacred sayings, and in particular they maintain for Zeus a team of Nisaean horses— and these horses are the finest and largest to be found in Asia — but for Helius they maintain only a single horse.
"These Magi narrate their myth, not in the manner of our prophets of the Muses, who merely present each detail with much plausibility, but rather with stubborn insistence upon its truthfulness. For they assert that the universe is constantly being propelled and driven along a single path, as by a charioteer endowed with highest skill and power, and that this movement goes on unceasingly in unceasing cycles of time. And the coursing of Helius and Selenê, according to their account, is the movement of portions of the whole, and for that reason it is more clearly perceived by mankind. And they add that the movement and revolution of the universe as a whole is not perceptible to the majority of mankind, but that, on the contrary, they are ignorant of the magnitude of this contest.
"What follows regarding the horses and their driving I really am ashamed to tell in the manner in which the Magi set it forth in their narrative, since they are not very much concerned to secure consistency at all points in their presentation of the picture. In fact, quite possibly I may appear absurd when, in contrast with Greek lays of grace and charm, I chant one that is barbarian; but still I must make the venture.
"According to the Magi, that one of the horses which is the highest in the heavensis immeasurably superior in beauty, size, and speed, since it has the outside track and runs the longest course, a horse sacred to Zeus himself. Furthermore, it is a winged creature, brilliant in colour with the brilliance of the purest flame; and in it Helius and Selenê are to be seen as conspicuous signs or marks — like, I fancy, the marks which horses bear here on earth, some crescent-shaped and some of other patterns. And they say that these 'marks' appear to us to be in close array, as it were great sparks of fire darting about in the midst of brilliant light, and yet that each has its own independent motion. Furthermore, the other stars also which are visible through that Horse of Zeus, one and all being natural parts of it, in some instances revolve along with it and have the same motion, and in others follow different tracks. And they add that among men these stars which are associated with the Horse of Zeus have each its own particular name; whereas the rest are treated collectively in groups, distributed so as to form certain figures or patterns.
"Well then, the horse that is most brilliant and most spangled with stars and dearest to Zeus himself, being praised by the Magi in their hymns for some such attributes as these, quite properly stands first in sacrifice and worship as being truly first.
Конь Геры Воздух
Next in order after that, in closest contact with the Horse of Zeus, comes one that bears the name of Hera, a horse obedient to the rein and gentle, but far inferior in strength and speed. In colour this horse is of its own nature black, but that portion which receives the light of Helius is regularly bright, whereas where it is in shadow in its revolution it has its own proper colour.
Конь Посейдона и нимф - Вода
Third comes a horse that is sacred to Poseidon, still slower than the second. Regarding this steed the poets have a myth to the effect that its counterpart appeared among men — he whom they call Pegasus, methinks — and they claim that he caused a fountain to burst forth at Corinth by pawing with his hoof.
Неподвижный конь Гестии Земля
But the fourth is the strangest conception of them all, a horse both firm and immovable, to say nothing of its having no wings, and it is named after Hestia. However, the Magi do not shrink from its portrayal; on the contrary, they state that this steed also is harnessed to the chariot, and yet it remains immovable, champing its adamantine curb. And from all sides the other horses press close to him with their bodies and the pair that are his neighbours swerve toward him abreast, falling upon him, as it were, and crowding him, yet the horse that is farthest off is ever first to round that stationary steed as horses round the turn in the hippodrome.
"Now for the most part the horses continue in peace and friendship, unharmed by one another. But on one occasion in the past, in the course of a long space of time and many revolutions of the universe, a mighty blast from the first horse fell from on high, and, as might have been expected from such a fiery-tempered steed, inflamed the others, and more especially the last in order; and the fire encompassed not alone its mane, which formed its personal pride, but the whole universe as well.
And the Magi say that the Greeks, recording this experience as an isolated occurrence, connect it with the name of Phaethon, since they are unable to criticize the driving of Zeus and are loath to find fault with the coursings of Helius. And so they relate that a younger driver, a mortal son of Helius, desiring a sport that was to prove grievous and disastrous for all mankind, besought his father to let him mount his car and, plunging along in disorderly fashion, consumed with fire everything, both animals and plants, and finally was himself destroyed, being smitten by too powerful a flame.
"Again, when at intervals of several years the horse that is sacred to Poseidon and the Nymphs rebels, having become panic-stricken and agitated beyond his wont, he overwhelms with copious sweat that same steed, since they two are yoke-mates. Accordingly it meets with fate which is the opposite of the disaster previously mentioned, this time being deluged with a mighty flood. And the Magi state that here again the Greeks, through youthful ignorance and faulty memory, record this flood as a single occurrence and claim thatDeucalion, who was then king, saved them from complete destruction.
According to the Magi, these rare occurrences are viewed by mankind as taking place for their destruction, and not in accord with reason or as a part of the order of the universe, being unaware that they occur quite properly and in keeping with the plan of the preserver and governor of the world. For in reality it is comparable with what happens when a charioteer punishes one of his horses, pulling hard upon the rein or pricking with the goad; and then the horse prances and is thrown into a panic but straightway settles down to its proper gait.
"Well then, this is one kind of driving of which they tell, attended by violence but not involving the complete destruction of the universe.
Reductio ad ignis
On the other hand, they tell also of a different kind that involves the movement and change of all four horses, one in which they shift among themselves and interchange their forms until all come together into one being, having been overcome by that one which is superior in power. And yet this movement also the Magi dare to liken to the guidance and driving of a chariot, though to do so they need even stranger imagery. For instance, it is as if some magician were to mould horses out of wax, and then, subtracting and scraping off the wax from each, should add a little now to this one and now to that, until finally, having used up all the horses in constructing one from the four, he should fashion a single horse out of all his material. They state, however, that in reality the process to which they refer is not like that of such inanimate images, in which the craftsman operates and shifts the material from without, but that instead the transformation is the work of these creatures themselves, just as if they were striving for victory in a contest that is great and real. And they add that the victory and its crown belong of necessity to that horse which is first and best in speed and prowess and general excellence, I mean to that one which we named in the beginning of our account as the special steed of Zeus. For that one, being most valiant of all and fiery by nature, having speedily used up the others — as if, methinks, they were truly made of wax — in no great span of time (though to us it seems endless according to our reckoning) and having appropriated to itself all the substance of them all, appeared much greater and more brilliant than formerly; not through the aid of any other creature, either mortal or immortal, but by itself and its own efforts proving victor in the greatest contest. And, standing tall and proud, rejoicing in its victory, it not only seized the largest possible region but also needed larger space at that time, so great was its strength and its spirit.
"Having arrived at that stage in their myth, the Magi are embarrassed in search of a name to describe the nature of the creature of their own invention. For they say that now by this time it is simply the soul of the charioteer and master; or, let us say, merely the intellect and leadership of that soul. (Those, in fact, are the terms we ourselves employ when we honour and reverence the greatest god by noble deeds and pious words).
For indeed, when the mind alone had been left and had filled with itself immeasurable space, since it had poured itself evenly in all directions and nothing in it remained dense but complete porosity prevailed — at which time it becomes most beautiful — having obtained the purest nature of unadulterated light, it immediately longed for the existence that it had at first.
Accordingly, becoming enamoured of that control and governance and concord which it once maintained not only over the three natures of sun and moon and the other stars, but also over absolutely all animals and plants, it became eager to generate and distribute everything and to make the orderly universe then existent once more far better and more resplendent because newer.
And emitting a full flash of lightning, not a disorderly or foul one such as in stormy weather often darts forth, when the clouds drive more violently than usual, but rather pure and unmixed with any murk, it worked a transformation easily, with the speed of thought. But recalling Aphroditê and the process of generation, it tamed and relaxed itself and, quenching much of its light, it turned into fiery air of gentle warmth, and uniting with Hera and enjoying the most perfect wedlock, in sweet repose it emitted anew the full supply of seed for the universe. Such is the blessed marriage of Zeus and Heraof which the sons of sages sing in secret rites.
And having made fluid all his essence, one seed for the entire world, he himself moving about in it like a spirit that moulds and fashions in generation, then indeed most closely resembling the composition of the other creatures, inasmuch as he might with reason be said to consist of soul and body, he now with ease moulds and fashions all the rest, pouring about him his essence smooth and soft and easily yielding in every part.
And having performed his task and brought it to completion, he revealed the existent universe as once more a thing of beauty and inconceivable loveliness, much more resplendent, indeed, than it appears to‑day. For not only, I ween, are all other works of craftsmen better and brighter when fresh from the artistic hand of their maker, but also the younger specimens of plants are more vigorous than the old and altogether like young shoots. And indeed animals, too, are charming attractive to behold right after their birth, not merely the most beautiful among them — colts and calves and puppies — but even the whelps of wild animals of the most savage kind.
For, on the one hand, the nature of man is helpless and feeble like Demeter's tender grain, but when it has progressed to the full measure of its prime, it is a stronger and more conspicuous creation than any plant at all. However, the entire heaven and universe when first it was completed, having been put in order by the wisest and noblest craft, just released from the hand of the creator, brilliant and translucent and brightly beaming in all its parts, remained helpless for no time at all, nor weak with the weakness that nature ordains for man and other mortal beings, but, on the contrary, was fresh and vigorous from the very beginning.
At that time, therefore, the Creator and Father of the World, beholding the work of his hands, was not by any means merely pleased, for that is a lowly experience of lowly beings; nay, he rejoiced and was delighted exceedingly,
As on Olympus he sat, and his heart did laugh
For joy, beholding the gods
who were now all created and present before him."
But the form of the universe at that moment — I mean both the bloom and the beauty of that which is for ever ineffably beauteous — no man could conceive and fitly express, neither among men of our time nor among those of former days, but only the Muses and Apollo with the divine rhythm of their pure and consummate harmony.
For that reason let us also refrain for the present, now that we have not shirked exalting the myth to the best of our power. And if the form of that myth has turned out to be utterly lofty and indistinct, just as those who are expert in augury declare that the bird which ascends too high into the heavens hides itself in the clouds makes divination incomplete, still it is not I whom you should blame, but rather the insistence of those men of Borysthenes, because it was they who bade me speak that day.
Гегемоникон человека и мира
Гегемоникон в эфире у Зеона и Хрисиппа
В Солнце Гелиосе у Клеанфа
Космос по Хрисиппу: Провидение Пронойя, цель
Космос, согласно Хрисиппу, есть «совокупность богов и людей, а также вещей, созданных ради них».
Пронойя = Логос = Фюзис
Судьба и причинная связь
Хрисипп определял геймармене как «вечное, непрерывное и закономерное движение» или как
«естественный порядок всего происходящего, согласно коему от века одно следует за другим и свершается в непреложном переплетении».
Это находит свое обобщение в краткой формуле:
«Геймармене есть непреложный ряд причин».
Случайности не существует. Лишь ограниченность человеческого знания ищет прибежища в этом имени, будучи не в силах распознать причину.
Фактически же посредством непреложного ряда причин определено, что лишь один случай становится действительностью.
Мойра – удел Fatum Рок
Понятие геймармене с древних времен было в ходу у греков. Еще у Гомера форма в остальном исчезнувшего глагола εϊμαρτο употребляется в тот момент, когда человек приходит к осознанию, что ему была отмерена определенная «доля» в мировых событиях и что в его жизнь вторгается «мойра" определяя ее против его собственной воли и желания. Эта мойра постепенно развилась во властвующую надо всем судьбу, и точно так же геймармене стала всеобъемлющим роком, против которого напрасна всякая борьба.